No other science
has so many theories, hypotheses and white spots
as cosmology - a branch of astronomy and astrophysics.
As a matter of fact every astrophysicist regards
as his duty to suggest a new hypothesis or at
least to modify slightly an old one. Because
an imagination of mathematicians is not less
than imagination of astrophysicists, this new
hypothesis of origin of universe has appeared.
More precisely it is a hypothesis of universes
because in this hypothesis there are infinite
multitude of universes and infinite multitude
of big bangs.
Before we consider this hypothesis let us look
at the history. First our ancestors placed the
Earth in the center of the cosmos world. Then
Mikolaj Kopernik or Nicolaus Copernicus in Latin
version moved it from the center, but the center
was immediately occupied by the sunís system
with the sun at the center. Then the sunís system
was moved from the center, and our universe
with its big bang became the center. This seems
to me to be another mistake. In this new hypothesis
of multiple universes and multiple bangs, the
idea of the center is absolutely absent. There
is no beginning and no ending. However, the
last statement does not apply to the single
universe. Every concrete single universe begins
from its big bang and sometimes has an end.
But in a bigger scale there is one SuperUniverse
or Common Universe or United Universe. Its name
does not exist for the time being. Let us meanwhile
name it as SuperUniverse at least for respect
to its size.
The SuperUniverse is not constant. It boils
up and rages in some sections, and cools down
and stock-stills in others. There are tiny "bubbles"
in some places; sometimes they get in touch
with each other and even come crawling across
each other. Each tiny "bubble" is
just another possible bang - big or small one.
If a bang is big enough then a new universe
may be born. If a bang is not big enough then
a new universe will not be born. There are a
lot of cold places between the tiny boiling
up "bubbles". They are either the
places of former, now calm down universes or
places where universes never exist.
What objects are these tiny bubbles? Of course
they are Black holes. I beg professionalís -
astrophysicistís pardon for a long digression.
I intend to discuss for non astrophysicists
the Black Holes, gravitational radius and a
state of singularity because I want that this
hypothesis be understood by those who does not
choose astronomy or astrophysics as their profession.
For those few only one phrase: "The state
of singularity preceded the appearance of our
Universe; Black Holes could collapse into the
state of singularity."
So to gain an understanding of the state of
singularity let us imagine that we can gradually
decrease a radius of the planet, squeezing it
and keeping the mass of the planet. A force
of gravity will increase because the radius
is decreased. If the force of gravity achieves
the infinity we can talk about the state of
singularity and Black Hole. In what case can
the force of gravity achieve the infinity? In
accordance with Newton the force of gravity
is increased to infinity when we squeeze a physical
body into a dot. In accordance with Einstein
the force of gravity is increased to infinity
when a radius of the physical body becomes equal
to so named radius of gravity. According to
Einsteinís relativity theory as only the radius
of celestial body becomes equal to its radius
of gravity a light can not leave a surface of
this body and the body became invisible. The
force of gravity on its surface must become
infinite and an acceleration of gravity must
become infinite too. What can be the result?
To answer this question let us recall at first
why stars and planets donít squeeze to their
centers under the action of gravity, but constitute
equilibrium bodies. Forces of internal pressures
prevent the squeezing to the centers. In the
stars it is pressure of gas with very high temperature,
striving for extending of the star. In the planets
of such type as Earth it is forces of tensions,
elasticity and pressure. The equality of gravity
and expostulating forces just maintain equilibrium
of the celestial bodies. With the approaching
the sizes of the celestial bodies to its radius
of gravity the force of gravity strives to the
infinity. Now it can not be balanced by the
finite expostulating forces and celestial bodies
must squeeze to its centers under the action
of gravity irrepressibly. Any elementary or
non elementary particle, found itself not far
from the gravity center must fall to this center
irrepressibly. The infinite growth of the force
of gravity strives to the catastrophic, irrepressible
squeezing of an object. So it is enough to squeeze
a body to its radius of gravity and after it
the body will continue to squeeze irrepressibly.
The process after approaching to the radius
of gravity can not be stopped, the surface will
be squeezed into a dot and a density will strives
to infinity. Physicists call such phenomenon
as the state of singularity. This is how Black
Theoretically any celestial body could be converted
into Black Hole. It is necessary to squeeze
a body to its radius of gravity and after it
the body will continue to squeeze irrepressibly.
The radius of gravity is determined by the mass
of celestial body. The less the mass the less
is radius of gravity. But it is very small even
for gigantic mass. For example it is equal to
1 centimeter for the Earth.
So the Black Hole appeared. Now it swallows
up any object, grinds it in such way that it
destroys any difference between the objects.
Characteristics of the Black Holes do not depend
from the characteristics of collapsed substances,
from the all complex of the structures of the
substances, from its atomic structure, from
the physical fields. Processes in all Black
Holes are the same and their states of singularity
The Black Hole is not eternal. When left on
their own, without external impact would slowly
disappear, converting into thermal exhalation.
The less the mass of Black Hole, the higher
temperature of its exhalation. With decreasing
of the mass of Black Hole, during the thermal
exhalation its temperature increases and the
process of exhalation is speeded up. The process
of exhalation is ended with the fantastic bang.
Its last thousands of tons of the mass the Black
Hole blows up or blasts in a gigantic bang.
All what seemed before an eternal gravity abyss
disappears in such fantastic firework. Of course,
it happens very not soon. Estimations show that
if Black Hole of starís mass is left on their
own it will exhales and blast in years.
Thus it is clear with the end of Black Hole.
It is ended its existence with the state of
singularity and a bang. And what did our Universe
begin from? It began equally well - from the
state of singularity and Big Bang!
Approximately 15 billions years detach our
epoch from the Big Bang and beginning of the
expansion of the Universe when the radius of
the Universe was equal to zero and its density
was infinite - from the singularity. With the
beginning of impetuous expansion of the Universe
time and space appeared.
So our Universe was born. Nothing extraordinary
happened from the point of view of suggested
hypothesis of multiply Universes and multiply
Bangs. Such events yet happened infinite quantity
of times and will happen again infinite quantities
of times. Are these processes always the same
? No! Let us again return to our Universe and
see what differences could be.
In our Universe quantity of quarks was little
more then quantity of antiquarks and quantity
of electrons was more then quantity of positrons
at moment of end of transfers quarks to leptons.
The quantity of particles was one more then
quantity of antiparticles in each billion in
the common clot.
This determined further appearance of our material
Universe with its galaxies, stars, planets and
sentient beings on some of these planets in
such way as we know our Universe.
In other bangs the quantity of particles could
be more then quantity of antiparticles and that
universes would be material, similar to our
Universe. But it could be vice versa when the
quantity of the antiparticles more then quantity
of particles and these universes would be different.
From the point of view of the theory of probability
the appearance of the material and antimaterial
universe has equal probability.
If to consider regular bangs in SuperUniverse
then births of each universe is like a fireworks,
after which big "bubble" appears.
It is not that tiny, imperceptible "bubble",
which represents Black Hole. It is big and well
noticeable "bubble" which includes
universe. This "bubble" gradually
increases its sizes at least until the universe
is enlarged. If the universe begins to shrink,
then its "bubble" begins to shrink
Astronomers have serious bases to suspect
that there are a lot of concealed mass in our
Universe. One of the cause for such suspicious
are results of the measurement of masses of
the accumulation of galaxies. These measurements
were provided such way. Right accumulations
have symmetric shapes, allocations of galaxies
smoothly decrease from the center to the edges
and so there is a strong reason to consider
that accumulations are in equilibrium state,
when power of the moving galaxies is balanced
by the gravity forces of all masses of the accumulations.
In this case gravity force could be determined
and it means we can get a full mass of all kinds
of material of the allocation because all of
them take part in a creation of gravity force.
But we can determine the mass of accumulation
with another way. To do it necessary to calculate
number of all galaxies in the accumulation and
multiply to average mass of the galaxies. If
to go such way then we get approximately one
tenth of the mass, gotten with the first method.
It means that concealed mass is presented in
the accumulation and this concealed mass takes
part in the gravity force. Maybe this concealed
mass is a part of others "bubbles"
Sizes of each of universes are finite as sizes
of bubbles in boiling broth. If the sizes of
regular universe smoothly increase till the
some critical values density in such universe
becomes less then some critical density, gravity
forces weaken and the universe "burst"
as a bubble. The universe, now we can say former
universe, no longer has gravity force, the connection
between time and space got broken and all that
belonged before to this universe belongs now
to the SuperUniverse. The absence of time and
space is the distinguishing feature of the SuperUniverse.
SuperUniverse more closely resembles "ideal"
liquid. There are no stickiness, friction, structures
in the SuperUniverse. Do "bubbles"
- universes always "burst" at the
end of their evolution ? No! Universes can begin
to shrink or pulsate.
How does this scenario develop ? Would it be
permanent expansion, pulsation or permanent
shrinking after expansion depends from ratio
of density to critical density in the universe.
If kinetic energy of expansion of the substance
is more then gravity force then expansion of
the universe will be permanent till its death.
If gravity force is more then kinetic energy
of expansion of the substance then the pace
of expansion is slacken down with time till
the full stop, after that shrinking will appear
till the state of singularity, then new bang
will happen and the universe will be reborn.
In a case when gravity force is equal to kinetic
energy the expansion will not be stopped but
its speed will strive to zero. Pulsation is
also possible in theory.
Stating thesis about expansion, shrinking
and pulsation of the universe depending from
the density are not new. Stand out many models
of the universe.
Hypothesis of multiple universes and multiple
bangs brings here the only supplement. This
hypothesis explains what happened with material
of expanding universe. It overflows into SuperUniverse
and becomes initial material for new universes.
How did it happened?
In the moment of the burst of a Black Hole
the collapsed material has released. It is grinded
by the Black Hole till nothing of its atomic
structure survived. An absence of time and space
makes released material from the Black Hole
and material of SuperUniverse related. It is
then, later, in a moment time and space will
appear. But this moment will be enough that
a "bubble" after burst captures not
only collapsed material but a part of SuperUniverse
with all multiplicity of its elements.
Just a capturing of the part of SuperUniverse
with all multiplicity of its elements is the
reason of such big quantity of varieties of
elements in our universe. Then time and space
arise in the appeared Universe and its material
practically does not interact with SuperUniverse.