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A hypothesis of multiple universes and multiple bangs

by Tetyana Butler

- Are astronomers the craziest people on the Earth?
- Not really. Mathematicians are even crazier.

No other science has so many theories, hypotheses and white spots as cosmology - a branch of astronomy and astrophysics. As a matter of fact every astrophysicist regards as his duty to suggest a new hypothesis or at least to modify slightly an old one. Because an imagination of mathematicians is not less than imagination of astrophysicists, this new hypothesis of origin of universe has appeared. More precisely it is a hypothesis of universes because in this hypothesis there are infinite multitude of universes and infinite multitude of big bangs.

Before we consider this hypothesis let us look at the history. First our ancestors placed the Earth in the center of the cosmos world. Then Mikolaj Kopernik or Nicolaus Copernicus in Latin version moved it from the center, but the center was immediately occupied by the sunís system with the sun at the center. Then the sunís system was moved from the center, and our universe with its big bang became the center. This seems to me to be another mistake. In this new hypothesis of multiple universes and multiple bangs, the idea of the center is absolutely absent. There is no beginning and no ending. However, the last statement does not apply to the single universe. Every concrete single universe begins from its big bang and sometimes has an end. But in a bigger scale there is one SuperUniverse or Common Universe or United Universe. Its name does not exist for the time being. Let us meanwhile name it as SuperUniverse at least for respect to its size.

The SuperUniverse is not constant. It boils up and rages in some sections, and cools down and stock-stills in others. There are tiny "bubbles" in some places; sometimes they get in touch with each other and even come crawling across each other. Each tiny "bubble" is just another possible bang - big or small one. If a bang is big enough then a new universe may be born. If a bang is not big enough then a new universe will not be born. There are a lot of cold places between the tiny boiling up "bubbles". They are either the places of former, now calm down universes or places where universes never exist.

What objects are these tiny bubbles? Of course they are Black holes. I beg professionalís - astrophysicistís pardon for a long digression. I intend to discuss for non astrophysicists the Black Holes, gravitational radius and a state of singularity because I want that this hypothesis be understood by those who does not choose astronomy or astrophysics as their profession. For those few only one phrase: "The state of singularity preceded the appearance of our Universe; Black Holes could collapse into the state of singularity."

So to gain an understanding of the state of singularity let us imagine that we can gradually decrease a radius of the planet, squeezing it and keeping the mass of the planet. A force of gravity will increase because the radius is decreased. If the force of gravity achieves the infinity we can talk about the state of singularity and Black Hole. In what case can the force of gravity achieve the infinity? In accordance with Newton the force of gravity is increased to infinity when we squeeze a physical body into a dot. In accordance with Einstein the force of gravity is increased to infinity when a radius of the physical body becomes equal to so named radius of gravity. According to Einsteinís relativity theory as only the radius of celestial body becomes equal to its radius of gravity a light can not leave a surface of this body and the body became invisible. The force of gravity on its surface must become infinite and an acceleration of gravity must become infinite too. What can be the result?

To answer this question let us recall at first why stars and planets donít squeeze to their centers under the action of gravity, but constitute equilibrium bodies. Forces of internal pressures prevent the squeezing to the centers. In the stars it is pressure of gas with very high temperature, striving for extending of the star. In the planets of such type as Earth it is forces of tensions, elasticity and pressure. The equality of gravity and expostulating forces just maintain equilibrium of the celestial bodies. With the approaching the sizes of the celestial bodies to its radius of gravity the force of gravity strives to the infinity. Now it can not be balanced by the finite expostulating forces and celestial bodies must squeeze to its centers under the action of gravity irrepressibly. Any elementary or non elementary particle, found itself not far from the gravity center must fall to this center irrepressibly. The infinite growth of the force of gravity strives to the catastrophic, irrepressible squeezing of an object. So it is enough to squeeze a body to its radius of gravity and after it the body will continue to squeeze irrepressibly. The process after approaching to the radius of gravity can not be stopped, the surface will be squeezed into a dot and a density will strives to infinity. Physicists call such phenomenon as the state of singularity. This is how Black Holes appear.

Theoretically any celestial body could be converted into Black Hole. It is necessary to squeeze a body to its radius of gravity and after it the body will continue to squeeze irrepressibly. The radius of gravity is determined by the mass of celestial body. The less the mass the less is radius of gravity. But it is very small even for gigantic mass. For example it is equal to 1 centimeter for the Earth.

So the Black Hole appeared. Now it swallows up any object, grinds it in such way that it destroys any difference between the objects. Characteristics of the Black Holes do not depend from the characteristics of collapsed substances, from the all complex of the structures of the substances, from its atomic structure, from the physical fields. Processes in all Black Holes are the same and their states of singularity are identical.

The Black Hole is not eternal. When left on their own, without external impact would slowly disappear, converting into thermal exhalation. The less the mass of Black Hole, the higher temperature of its exhalation. With decreasing of the mass of Black Hole, during the thermal exhalation its temperature increases and the process of exhalation is speeded up. The process of exhalation is ended with the fantastic bang. Its last thousands of tons of the mass the Black Hole blows up or blasts in a gigantic bang. All what seemed before an eternal gravity abyss disappears in such fantastic firework. Of course, it happens very not soon. Estimations show that if Black Hole of starís mass is left on their own it will exhales and blast in years.

Thus it is clear with the end of Black Hole. It is ended its existence with the state of singularity and a bang. And what did our Universe begin from? It began equally well - from the state of singularity and Big Bang!

Approximately 15 billions years detach our epoch from the Big Bang and beginning of the expansion of the Universe when the radius of the Universe was equal to zero and its density was infinite - from the singularity. With the beginning of impetuous expansion of the Universe time and space appeared.

So our Universe was born. Nothing extraordinary happened from the point of view of suggested hypothesis of multiply Universes and multiply Bangs. Such events yet happened infinite quantity of times and will happen again infinite quantities of times. Are these processes always the same ? No! Let us again return to our Universe and see what differences could be.

In our Universe quantity of quarks was little more then quantity of antiquarks and quantity of electrons was more then quantity of positrons at moment of end of transfers quarks to leptons. The quantity of particles was one more then quantity of antiparticles in each billion in the common clot.

This determined further appearance of our material Universe with its galaxies, stars, planets and sentient beings on some of these planets in such way as we know our Universe.
In other bangs the quantity of particles could be more then quantity of antiparticles and that universes would be material, similar to our Universe. But it could be vice versa when the quantity of the antiparticles more then quantity of particles and these universes would be different. From the point of view of the theory of probability the appearance of the material and antimaterial universe has equal probability.

If to consider regular bangs in SuperUniverse then births of each universe is like a fireworks, after which big "bubble" appears. It is not that tiny, imperceptible "bubble", which represents Black Hole. It is big and well noticeable "bubble" which includes universe. This "bubble" gradually increases its sizes at least until the universe is enlarged. If the universe begins to shrink, then its "bubble" begins to shrink too.

Astronomers have serious bases to suspect that there are a lot of concealed mass in our Universe. One of the cause for such suspicious are results of the measurement of masses of the accumulation of galaxies. These measurements were provided such way. Right accumulations have symmetric shapes, allocations of galaxies smoothly decrease from the center to the edges and so there is a strong reason to consider that accumulations are in equilibrium state, when power of the moving galaxies is balanced by the gravity forces of all masses of the accumulations. In this case gravity force could be determined and it means we can get a full mass of all kinds of material of the allocation because all of them take part in a creation of gravity force. But we can determine the mass of accumulation with another way. To do it necessary to calculate number of all galaxies in the accumulation and multiply to average mass of the galaxies. If to go such way then we get approximately one tenth of the mass, gotten with the first method. It means that concealed mass is presented in the accumulation and this concealed mass takes part in the gravity force. Maybe this concealed mass is a part of others "bubbles" - universes.

Sizes of each of universes are finite as sizes of bubbles in boiling broth. If the sizes of regular universe smoothly increase till the some critical values density in such universe becomes less then some critical density, gravity forces weaken and the universe "burst" as a bubble. The universe, now we can say former universe, no longer has gravity force, the connection between time and space got broken and all that belonged before to this universe belongs now to the SuperUniverse. The absence of time and space is the distinguishing feature of the SuperUniverse. SuperUniverse more closely resembles "ideal" liquid. There are no stickiness, friction, structures in the SuperUniverse. Do "bubbles" - universes always "burst" at the end of their evolution ? No! Universes can begin to shrink or pulsate.
How does this scenario develop ? Would it be permanent expansion, pulsation or permanent shrinking after expansion depends from ratio of density to critical density in the universe. If kinetic energy of expansion of the substance is more then gravity force then expansion of the universe will be permanent till its death. If gravity force is more then kinetic energy of expansion of the substance then the pace of expansion is slacken down with time till the full stop, after that shrinking will appear till the state of singularity, then new bang will happen and the universe will be reborn. In a case when gravity force is equal to kinetic energy the expansion will not be stopped but its speed will strive to zero. Pulsation is also possible in theory.

Stating thesis about expansion, shrinking and pulsation of the universe depending from the density are not new. Stand out many models of the universe.
Hypothesis of multiple universes and multiple bangs brings here the only supplement. This hypothesis explains what happened with material of expanding universe. It overflows into SuperUniverse and becomes initial material for new universes. How did it happened?

In the moment of the burst of a Black Hole the collapsed material has released. It is grinded by the Black Hole till nothing of its atomic structure survived. An absence of time and space makes released material from the Black Hole and material of SuperUniverse related. It is then, later, in a moment time and space will appear. But this moment will be enough that a "bubble" after burst captures not only collapsed material but a part of SuperUniverse with all multiplicity of its elements.
Just a capturing of the part of SuperUniverse with all multiplicity of its elements is the reason of such big quantity of varieties of elements in our universe. Then time and space arise in the appeared Universe and its material practically does not interact with SuperUniverse.


Drawing 1

The drawing 1 shows a birth and developing of the Universe. It does not matter if this Universe is ours or not. The birth of the Universe happens at the moment O. At the same moment space and time appears in this Universe. The events, shown before the point O happened in another Universe and at another time. The representation of these events on this drawing is conditional.
1. - a point A. The Black Hole appeared in another Universe.
2. - a line AB. The Black Hole accumulated collapsed material in another Universe.
3. - a point B. The Big Bang.
4. - a line BC. Released material from the Black Hole mixed up with a part of the SuperUniverse.
5. - a point C. At that moment space and time appeared in the Universe. At the moment O time = 0 .
6. - a line CD. Stars, planets, galaxies appeared in the Universe.
7. - a point D. The first Black Hole appeared and began to take up material of the Universe.
8. - a line DE. More and more Black Holes appeared and the process of loosing material by the Universe got faster. The events can go different ways after the point E. The Universe may continue to expend and then with time its material will become part of the SuperUniverse. The Universe may begin to shrink or pulsate.
9. - a line EF is one of the possible scenarios. The Universe lost its material drastically. It began to shrink till the state of singularity.
10. - a point F. New Big Bang and new Universe appeared.

Does the SuperUniverse change or stay unchangeable? It is changed! New universes are born and old ones die. Big and small bangs happen everywhere. The SuperUniverse seethes, boiling up and banging in some places and cools down and stands still for a moment on other places.

The model of Big Bang is the most popular in our days. But it has some unsolved problems. One of the main items among these problems is connected with Big Bang itself. If nothing existed before the Big Bang them WHAT banged?
The model of SuperUniverse decides this problem.

April 25, 2005

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